Need for Temperature instruments in today's world!
The temperature in today’s world has become a common word used everywhere. We only denote temperature with its relation to the thermometer, but did you know it also has different types? While thermometers are known to have mercury to measure temperature, what all temperature instruments have in common is to detect a change in the physical characteristics of the object.
Temperature, known to be measuring the heat of the body, characterizes into whether the body is hot or cold. The SI unit used to measure the temperature of any object is Kelvin (K). There are other scales that are used to measure temperature which is Celcius or Fahrenheit.
The six types of basic temperature measurement sensors which we are going to talk about, namely thermocouples, resistive temperature devices (thermistors and RTDs), bimetallic devices, infrared radiators, liquid expansion devices, and silicon diodes.
Thermocouples are basically voltage devices that measure temperature measurement with the change in the voltage. As the temperature keeps rising, the output voltage of the thermocouple goes up but not exactly linearly.
Most of the time, the thermocouples are located inside a ceramic-made or metallic-made shield which protects the thermocouple from exposure to a variety of environments. The metal-covered thermocouples are also available with a lot of different types of outer coatings, which also include Teflon, which is for the trouble-free to use acids and strong use in strong-caustic solutions and acids.
The infrared sensors are the non-contacting sensors. To understand this better, let us take an example. If we hold up a typical infrared sensor on the front of our desks without contact, the sensors will tell us accordingly what the temperature of the desk is by the virtue of the radiation, the sensor will let us know the temperature of the desk by the virtue of the radiation.
When taking the case of non-contacting measurement of icy water, the measure would result in slightly below 0 degrees due to evaporation, which lowers the reading slightly.
Resistive Temperature Measuring Device
These devices are electrical. The Resistive Temperature Measuring Devices takes advantage of a characteristic of changes that change the temperature- its resistance rather than using a voltage just like a thermocouple does. There are two types of resistive devices that companies like OMEGA Engineering Inc., which are resistive temperature devices (RTD) and thermistors.
Bimetallic devices are ones who take advantage of the metals expanding once they are heated. With devices like these, the two metals are fixed together and are linked to a pointer mechanically. When they are heated, one side of the bimetallic strip will heat and expand more than the other part of the strip. When they are geared properly to a pointer, the temperature measurement is indicated.
5) Digital temperature Controller
The Digital Temperature Controller is a type of device that can be used to control the temperature. Firstly it measures the temperature (i.e process variable), and then it compares it to the desired value (i.e set value). The difference between these values is known as the error (also called Deviation). Temperature controllers thus use this error to decide how much heating or cooling is required to bring the process temperature back to the desired value. Once the calculation is complete then the controller will produce an output signal that effects the change required. This output signal is known as the (also called manipulated value) and is normally connected to a heater, control valve, fan, or some other "final control element" which actually injects or removes heat from the process. The temperature controller has one input, one output, and one set point.
6) PID Controller
A PID controller (Proportional integral derivative Controller) is an instrument that is used in industrial control applications in order to regulate temperature, flow, pressure, speed, and other process variables. A PID temperature controller, as its name suggests is an instrument used to control temperature, mainly without extensive operator involvement. A PID controller useful in the temperature controlling system will accept a temperature sensor such as a thermocouple or RD as input and compare the actual temperature to the desired control temperature or set-point. It will then provide an output to a control element.
Data Loggers are electronic devices that monitor automatically and are used to record environmental parameters over time, which allows the conditions which they are in to be measured, analyzed, documented, and validated. This data logger has a small sensor attached to it that receives the information is given and a computer chip that stores all of the information. Then the information which is stored in the data logger is transferred to a computer for its analysis.
Panel Meters are those instruments which show an input signal in a form of analog or digital form. A lot of these panel meters also have alarm options with the ability to transfer information to a computer. These panel meters take a measure of the current or voltage which helps in constructing a visual representation of the value which was measured.
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